تاریخ انتشار : یکشنبه 23 آبان 1400 - 23:20
10 بازدید
کد خبر : 91719

عملیات رمضان و چند نکته

عملیات رمضان و چند نکته

گرمای طاقت‌فرسای هوا، نامناسب بودن زمین و موقعیت منطقه، آمادگی ارتش عراق و عدم غافلگیری، بروز پاره‌ای از مشکلات در پشتیبانی ادوات مهندسی و عدم هماهنگی مواردی هستند که سلسله عوامل این عدم موفقیت را تکمیل کردند. به گزارش ایسنا، یکی از تدابیر مهم ایران در جنگ را می‌توان تصمیم برای ورود به خاک عراق

عملیات رمضان و چند نکته

گرمای طاقت‌فرسای هوا، نامناسب بودن زمین و موقعیت منطقه، آمادگی ارتش عراق و عدم غافلگیری، بروز پاره‌ای از مشکلات در پشتیبانی ادوات مهندسی و عدم هماهنگی مواردی هستند که سلسله عوامل این عدم موفقیت را تکمیل کردند.

به گزارش ایسنا، یکی از تدابیر مهم ایران در جنگ را می‌توان تصمیم برای ورود به خاک عراق دانست. تصمیمی که با توجه به واکنش مجامع بین‌المللی و بی‌توجهی به حقوق ضایع‌شده ایران[۱] و همچنین تلاش برای دور کردن خطر حملات عراق از شهرهای جنوب غرب کشور در عملیاتی با نام «رمضان» طراحی و اجرا شد. هدف از این عملیات، حضور نیروها در پشت رودخانه دجله و اروندرود و تسلط بر معابر وصولی بصره[۲] بود تا از این طریق، موقعیت مناسبی برای وادار کردن دشمن به صلح واقعی، صورت گیرد. اما مجموعه عواملی پیش از انجام عملیات و در حین اجرای آن، دست‌به‌دست هم داد تا مجموعه اهداف از پیش تعیین‌شده، محقق نشود. در این زمینه می‌توان به مواردی ازجمله؛ اطلاعات ناقص، عجله در طرح‌ریزی عملیات، کاستی‌های مهندسی، تصور نادرست ایران از وضعیت ارتش عراق[۳] و کمک‌های اطلاعاتی آمریکا از آمادگی و مواضع نیروهای ایرانی اشاره کرد. البته ایجاد وقفه ۵۰ روزه پس از عملیات بیت‌المقدس و پرداختن جدی ایران به موضوع حمله اسرائیل به لبنان، فرصت کافی را به عراق داد تا تغییرات بسیار زیادی را در زمین منطقه ایجاد کند.

صدام با پمپاژ آب در کانالی به طول ۳۰ کیلومتر و عرض یک کیلومتر که به کانال پرورش ماهی معروف بود و احداث موانع، کمین و سنگرهای تیربار در حاشیه‌اش، از پیشروی نیروهای ایرانی جلوگیری کرد.

اجرای این عملیات علاوه بر مقدمات آن، در حین انجام نیز با مشکلاتی همراه بود. به‌طوری‌ که در طی ۱۷ روز از تاریخ ۱۳۶۱/۴/۲۲ تا ۱۳۶۱/۵/۷ در پنج مرحله مختلف، آنچه پیش‌بینی‌شده بود، محقق نگردید. برای مثال مرحله اول در سه محور شمالی، جنوبی و میانی صورت گرفت و به‌جز رزمندگان سپاهی و ارتشی محور جنوبی(جنوب پاسگاه زید) که توانسته بودند از مواضع نیروهای دشمن عبور کنند و خودشان را به نهر کتیبان در شرق اروند و کانال ماهی برسانند و به‌قدری به بصره نزدیک شده بودند که به‌راحتی چراغ‌های شهر را می‌دیدند، اما دو محور شمالی و میانی در دست‌یابی به اهداف مدنظر، ناکام بودند و جناح راست نیروهای محور جنوبی به علت سازه‌های متعدد مهندسی عراق و میدان‌های مین، تأمین نشد.

مراحل دوم و سوم بیشتر در محور میانی و به‌منظور تأمین منطقه عملیات و انهدام تجهیزات زرهی دشمن صورت گرفت و علاوه بر موفقیت در نابودسازی تجهیزات دشمن و با توجه به میدان‌های مین که در فاصله مراحل عملیات ایجاد شده بود، تلاش نیروها به سرانجام مطلوبی نرسید. همچنین در مرحله چهارم با توجه به تلاش توأمان نیروهای ارتش و سپاه، اما به دلیل هوشیاری دشمن و موانع و استحکامات متعدد، عبور از خط ممکن نشد. درنهایت در مرحله پنجم نیز تلاش‌ها معطوف به محور شمالی بود و علاوه بر موفقیت‌های به‌دست‌آمده و اینکه عملیات تا آستانه تثبیت پیش رفته بود، با بررسی‌های انجام‌شده، دستور عقب‌نشینی نیروها داده شد.[۴]

مسئله کمبود نیرو که اکثر یگان‌ها به آن دچار بودند[۵] و افزایش استحکامات دشمن باعث می‌شد نیروها در رزم شبانه، وقت و توان خود را صرف درگیری با آن‌ها کنند و تا طلوع صبح نتوانند به میزان مدنظر پیشروی مناسبی داشته باشند. گرمای طاقت‌فرسای هوا، نامناسب بودن زمین و موقعیت منطقه، آمادگی ارتش عراق و عدم غافلگیری، بروز پاره‌ای از مشکلات در پشتیبانی ادوات مهندسی و عدم هماهنگی مواردی هستند که سلسله عوامل این عدم موفقیت را تکمیل کردند. همچنین شهید صیاد شیرازی از فرماندهان جنگ در بیان علت روانی عدم موفقیت در این عملیات را احساس غرور از موفقیت در عملیات گذشته معرفی کرده است.[۶]

در این عملیات حدود ۲۵۰ کیلومترمربع از خاک ایران آزاد شد و ۴۰ کیلومترمربع از خاک عراق نیز به تصرف ایران درآمد.[۷] اگرچه این میزان از مناطق دشمن برای دست‌یابی به اهداف سیاسی و یک صلح پایدار، کافی نبود، اما چند مسئله حائز اهمیت در این عملیات به چشم می‌خورد. ازجمله اینکه به میزان قابل‌توجهی تجهیزات و ادوات دشمن نابود گردید و انجام این عملیات و تغییر زمین جنگ به دشمنان فهماند که ایران علاوه بر اخراج متجاوزین، آمادگی حضور در آن سوی مرزها و رسیدن به پیروزی نهایی و تعقیب و تنبیه متجاوز را دارد[۸] و بر این کار خود مصمم است.

پس از پایان این عملیات نیز، تجربیات ناشی از آن در طرح‌های عملیاتی برای مناطق کوهستانی در میانه جبهۀ به ترتیب در عملیات مسلم بن عقیل در تاریخ ۹/ ۷/ ۱۳۶۱ در منطقۀ سومار و عملیات محرم در تاریخ ۱۰ / ۸/ ۱۳۶۱ در ارتفاعات حمرین استفاده شد[۹] و مهم‌تر از همه از نتایج سیاسی مستقیم و زودهنگام انجام این عملیات در عرصه بین‌المللی، منجر به از دست دادن میزبانی هفتمین کنفرانس کشورهای غیرمتعهد توسط عراق شد که صدام از این طریق می‌توانست شرایط خود را برای صلح بر ایران تحمیل کند.

 

منابع:

[۱] – برای بررسی این موضوع می‌توان به قطعنامه ۵۱۴ شورای امنیت سازمان ملل متحد اشاره کرد.

[۲] – عملیات رمضان (ورود به خاک عراق برای تنبیه متجاوز)، چ۳، مرکز مطالعات و تحقیقات جنگ، تهران۱۳۹۱، ص۲۱.

[۳] – تاریخ تحلیلی جنگ ایران و عراق، علایی، حسین. ج۱، مرزوبوم، تهران۱۳۹۵، ص۵۳۹-۵۴۳

[۴] – روزشمار جنگ ایران و عراق(عبور از مرز)، ج۲۰، لطف‌الله زادگان، علی‌رضا، چ۱، مرکز تحقیقات و مطالعات جنگ سپاه پاسداران انقلاب اسلامی، تهران ۱۳۷۹، ص۲۸-۳۰.

[۵] – عملیات رمضان (ورود به خاک عراق برای تنبیه متجاوز)، ص۲۴

[۶] – بختیاری و معین وزیری، ارتش جمهوری اسلامی ایران در هشت سال دفاع مقدس، نبردهای غرب دزفول، ج۶، ص۱۱۲.

[۷] – تاریخ تحلیلی جنگ ایران و عراق، ص۵۴۷.

[۸] – بررسی مسائل اساسی جنگ (در آثار منتشرشده ارتش و سپاه)، درودیان، محمد، مرکز اسناد و تحقیقات دفاع مقدس، تهران ۱۳۹۶، ص۵۶۳.

[۹] – ارتش جمهوری اسلامی ایران در هشت سال دفاع مقدس، ج۶، ص۱۱۸.

انتهای پیام

منبع:ایسنا

برچسب ها :

ناموجود
ارسال نظر شما
مجموع نظرات : 0 در انتظار بررسی : 0 انتشار یافته : ۰
  • نظرات ارسال شده توسط شما، پس از تایید توسط مدیران سایت منتشر خواهد شد.
  • نظراتی که حاوی تهمت یا افترا باشد منتشر نخواهد شد.
  • نظراتی که به غیر از زبان فارسی یا غیر مرتبط با خبر باشد منتشر نخواهد شد.

تبلیغات متنی

htthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtthtt